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Aplicabilitatea TVA de 5% ar putea fi extinsă – vezi cum!

Noile reglementări i-ar sprijini pe cei interesați de achiziția unei locuințe noi, în special în marile orașe.

Potrivit Codului Fiscal actual, la achiziția unei locuințe nou-construite, românii trebuie să plătească TVA. Cumpărătorii beneficiază de o cotă redusă de TVA, în valoare de 5% – de care se pot folosi însă o singură dată și doar în cazul în care imobilul achiziționat are un preț de până la 450.000 de lei (adică aproximativ 100.000 de euro). Pentru restul tranzacțiilor, valoarea TVA este de 19%. Actualul context de piață ar impune însă o modificare a normelor actuale.

„O consecință directă și evidentă a impunerii unui prag financiar pentru aplicabilitatea unei TVA de 5% este aceea că cea mai mare parte a cererii de locuințe noi din marile orașe ale țării este orientată în momentul de față spre proprietățile de până la 100.000 de euro – este vorba despre o pondere de 71% din totalul căutărilor de locuințe noi, potrivit datelor Imobiliare.ro. Faptul că circa 61% din oferta pe acest segment din aceleași centre regionale (București, Brașov, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Iași și Timișoara) se încadrează în pragul de preț mai sus menționat ilustrează încercarea dezvoltatorilor de a se adapta acestei limitări a cererii, aspect care însă duce la compromisuri privind calitatea locuirii și dezavantajează cumpărătorii de trei și patru camere.”

Adrian Erimescu, CEO Imobiliare.ro

Minus pentru apartamentele mai spațioase

Este semnificativ că ponderea locuințelor noi cu o suprafață (utilă) de până la 120 de metri pătrați este sensibil mai mare în majoritatea orașelor analizate, ajungând la 84% din total, potrivit ofertelor listate pe portal. Acest fapt arată că există un segment important de piață – apartamentele cu suprafețe mai mari, cu trei și patru camere, mai exact – care are de suferit din pricina impunerii unui prag financiar pentru TVA de 5%.

În acest context, un fapt cu un impact potențial major pentru rezidențialul românesc este acela că reprezentanții statului analizează modificarea normelor de aplicare pentru cota redusă de TVA: este vorba, pe de o parte, despre eliminarea pragului financiar de 450.000 de lei, iar, pe de altă parte, despre posibilitatea ca un cumpărător să beneficieze în mod repetat de această facilitate. Consultați de Imobiliare.ro pentru Clubul Profesioniștilor în Imobiliare (CPI), o serie de jucători din piață au recunoscut impactul pozitiv al unor asemenea măsuri.

Locuințele mici, o problemă la români

Andreea Comșa, CEO al companiei de consultanță Premier Estate Management, consideră că implementarea reducerii la TVA pentru achiziția de locuințe noi, așa cum este aplicată în prezent, este limitată și neactuală. „Evoluția economiei, creșterea puterii de cumpărare, creșterea cererii, creșterea cursului valutar, creșterea costurilor de construcție, în special cu forța de muncă, toate acestea au avut drept consecință creșterea prețurilor locuințelor. Rezultatul e că în București, Timișoara, Cluj etc., cumpărătorii sunt privați astfel de accesul la locuințe cu trei sau patru camere. Aceasta în condițiile în care suntem pe ultimele locuri în Europa în ceea ce privește calitatea fondului nostru locativ și numărul de camere per locatar.”, explică reprezentanta Premier Estate.

Antreprenorul Ovidiu Șandor, dezvoltatorul complexului ISHO, din Timișoara, este de părere că, prin eliminarea pragului de 450.000 de lei pentru aplicarea unei TVA de 5%, Guvernul are ocazia să ia o măsură politică cu caracter social, care va avea ca beneficiu facilitarea accesului la o locuire decentă, încurajând, în mod indirect, atât natalitatea, cât și îmbunătățirea condițiilor de viață pentru tinerele familii. „A avea acces la un apartament cu trei-patru camere pentru o familie cu copii nu este un lux, ci o normalitate. Limita actuală de preț nu corespunde realităților din piață. Apartamentele cu trei și patru camere, cu o poziționare bună în orașele dezvoltate, nu se încadrează în acest preț din cauza creșterii costurilor de construcție, a materialelor, a forței de muncă. Unii dezvoltatori apelează astfel la diverse artificii fiscale pentru a încerca să se încadreze, iar familiile din orașele mari sunt astfel defavorizate. Prevederile actuale, deși bine intenționate, nu li se adresează. Bineînțeles, pentru că este o prevedere fundamental socială, nu trebuie încurajată achiziția luxului, iar acest lucru se poate limita ușor prin suprafață.”, subliniază Ovidiu Șandor, fondator și CEO al companiei Mulberry Development.

Impuls pentru achizițiile de tip upgrade

Andreea Comșa punctează că un alt aspect important, cu implicații sociale majore, este accesul tinerelor familii la a doua locuință nouă. Un scenariu tot mai des întâlnit pe piața rezidențială autohtonă este cel al cuplului tânăr care achiziționează în primă instanță o garsonieră sau un apartament cu două camere, dar care, peste câțiva ani, ajunge, atunci când apar copiii, să aibă nevoie de un spațiu locativ mai mare. „De multe ori, din punct de vedere financiar, ajutorul obținut prin reducerea TVA este mai important odată cu lărgirea familiei, însă prevederea actuală vine cu restricții exact pentru acest scenariu. Românii, în special generațiile tinere, nu își mai cumpără o casă pentru o viață, iar evoluția locativă trebuie să devină parte din normalitate.”, afirmă aceasta.

Și Cătălin Priscorniță, CEO al agenției clujene Blitz, consideră că un impact mai mare, semnificativ pozitiv pentru piața imobiliară, l-ar avea, dincolo de eliminarea pragului financiar de 450.000 de lei, extinderea aplicabilității TVA de 5% și pentru cei care au achiziționat deja o locuință (sau mai multe) beneficiind de această facilitate. „Dacă poți să cumperi mai multe apartamente cu TVA de 5%, deja nu mai e vorba de o măsură socială, ci de o măsură pentru publicul larg, care ar dinamiza mult piața imobiliară.”, conchide acesta.

sursa imobiliare.ro

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